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Just like boats, airplanes, or other forms of transporation there are going to be some spacecraft that are general purpose and others that are drastically optimized for a specific task. Yes, the line between general ship types and specialized ship types is a bit fuzzy.

I did the best I could. The traveling-public gripes at the lack of direct Earth-to-Moon service, but it takes three types of rocket ships and two space-station changes to make a fiddling quarter-million-mile jump for a good reason: Money. The Commerce Commission has set the charges for the present three-stage lift from here to the Moon at thirty dollars a pound.

Would direct service be cheaper? A ship designed to blast off from Earth, make an airless landing on the Moon, return and make an atmosphere landing, would be so cluttered up with heavy special equipment used only once in the trip that it could not show a profit at a thousand dollars a pound! Imagine combining a ferry boat, a subway train, and an express elevator.

So Trans-Lunar uses rockets braced for catapulting, and winged for landing on return to Earth to make the terrific lift from Earth to our satellite station Supra-New York. The long middle lap, from there to where Space Terminal circles the Moon, calls for comfort—but no landing gear.

The Flying Dutchman and the Philip Nolan never land; they were even assembled in space, and they resemble winged rockets like the Skysprite and the Firefly as little as a Pullman train resembles a parachute. Clarke in particular figured that there were three main types of spacecraft needed for the exploration of space: Space FerryOrbit-to-Orbitand Airless Lander.

Each is optimized for their own particular area of use. More recently, orbital propellant depots and their related tanker ships also seem like a good piece of infrastructure. There are some sample realistic designs herehereherehere and here. Not to mention here and here.

Warfare in the densely-populated Gilgamesh Cluster is almost incessant, and befitting their way of life. Gilgamite civilization has developed inexpensive and highly efficient spaceships. Vector One ships convey materials from planetary surfaces to orbit. Vector Two ships transport material between planets of a stellar system. And Vector Three ships range through the interstellar lanes.

Monopole and Dipole antenna

Vector Three ships, comprising a central cylinder and detachable cargo and cabin pods, are more than simple transports, however. When war threatens, the merchant marine is recalled, the cargo pods are removed, and weapon pods are installed.In telecommunications and electrical engineeringelectrical length or phase length refers to the length of an electrical conductor in terms of the phase shift introduced by transmission over that conductor [1] at some frequency.

Depending on the specific context, the term "electrical length" is used rather than simple physical length to incorporate one or more of the following three concepts:. The first use of the term "electrical length" assumes a sine wave of some frequency, or at least a narrowband waveform centered around some frequency f. A wave crest at the beginning of the graph, moving towards the right, will arrive at the end after a time 1.

The electrical length of that segment is said to be "1. In a transmission linea signal travels at a rate controlled by the effective capacitance and inductance per unit of length of the transmission line. Some transmission lines consist only of bare conductors, in which case their signals propagate at the speed of light, c. Most transmission lines contain a dielectric material insulator filling some or all of the space in between the conductors.

The relative permittivity or dielectric constant of that material increases the distributed capacitance in the cable, which reduces the velocity factor below unity.

This reduced velocity factor would also apply to propagation of signals along wires immersed in a large space filled with that dielectric. However, with only part of the space around the conductors filled with that dielectric, there is less reduction of the wave velocity. Part of the electromagnetic wave surrounding each conductor "feels" the effect of the dielectric, and part is in free space. In the case of coaxial cablewhere all of the volume in between the inner conductor and the shield is filled with a dielectric, the fill factor is unity, since the electromagnetic wave is confined to that region.

In other types of cable, such as twin leadthe fill factor can be much smaller. Regardless, any cable intended for radio frequencies will have its velocity factor as well as its characteristic impedance specified by the manufacturer. For example, a typical velocity factor for coaxial cable is. Applying the velocity factor of.

The velocity factor likewise applies to antennas in cases where the antenna conductors are partly surrounded by a dieletric. This particularly applies to microstrip antennas such as the patch antenna. Waves on microstrip are affected mostly by the dielectric of the circuit board beneath them, but also on the air above them because of trace edge effects.

While there are certain wideband antenna designsmany antennas are classified as resonant and perform according to design around a particular frequency. This applies especially to broadcasting stations and communication systems which are confined to one frequency or narrow frequency band.

SPACECRAFT TYPES

This includes the dipole and monopole antennas and all of the designs based on them Yagidipole or monopole arraysfolded dipoleetc. In addition to the directive gain in beam antennas suffering away from the design frequency, the antenna feedpoint impedance is very sensitive to frequency offsets.

Especially for transmitting, the antenna is often intended to operate at the resonant frequency. At the resonant frequency, by definition, that impedance is a pure resistance which matches the characteristic impedance of the transmission line and the output or input impedance of the transmitter or receiver.

At frequencies away from the resonant frequency, the impedance includes some reactance capacitance or inductance. It is possible for an antenna tuner to be used to cancel that reactance and to change the resistance to match the transmission linehowever that is often avoided as an extra complication and needs to be controlled at the antenna side of the transmission line.

An antenna which is shorter than its resonant length is described as " electrically short " [9]and exhibits capacitive reactance. Similarly, an antenna which is longer than its resonant length is described as " electrically long " and exhibits inductive reactance.

An antenna's effective electrical length can be changed without changing its physical length by adding reactanceinductance or capacitance in series with it. If the antenna is shorter than a quarter wavelength, the feedpoint impedance will include capacitive reactance ; this causes reflections on the feedline and a mismatch at the transmitter or receiver, even if the resistive component of the impedance is correct. To cancel the capacitive reactance, an inductance, called a loading coilis inserted in between the feedline and the antenna terminal.

Selecting an inductance with the same reactance as the negative capacitative reactance seen at the antenna terminal, cancels that capacitance, and the antenna system antenna and coil will again be resonant. The feedline sees a purely resistive impedance. Since an antenna which had been too short now appears as if it were resonant, the addition of the loading coil is sometimes referred to as "electrically lengthening" the antenna.

A capacitor in series with the antenna can cancel this reactance to make it resonant, which can be referred to as "electrically shortening" the antenna.Almadram (1) Scratched 6. Wilkin (4) Doesn't appear much depth to this field. TATLER finished strongly to end up midfield last start at Gawler when resuming and has good early speed, has solid claims.

MUCKUP down in weight and capable of closing gamely, sneaky chance. ALMADRAM drawn ideally and has finished poorly in past runs, in with a chance.

WILKIN short back-up of six days and disappointing last start at Mount Gambier, place only. Burnvale Lady (6) Scratched 3. Tiza (1) ScratchedDoesn't appear much depth to this field.

BURNVALE LADY should race on the speed and may be caught late, perfectly placed. TATOI finished fifth at only start at Dunkeld, could threaten. DABAY first-up after 21 week spell, don't dismiss. TIZA drawn ideally and carrying less weight, in with a chance. Sacred Monarch (1) Scratched 7. Iamthekey (7) Scratched 1. Cries of Joy (12) Looks a toss up between the top two selections. SACRED MONARCH placed last start at Clare when first up and drawn ideally, genuine contender.

REDEEKA led throughout for a dominant win last start at Hamilton on a soft track and won't be far away in the run, among the chances. IAMTHEKEY placed last start at Naracoorte on a heavy track and likely to race just off the speed, the real danger in the race. CRIES OF JOY back from 33 week spell and placed when trialling at Mount Gambier, still in this. Cool Maverick (6) Scratched 9.

Normandy Lad (2) 6. Ready for Action (9) COOL MAVERICK short back-up of four days and won last start at Strathalbyn, genuine contender. ZAAZOE has four placings from five runs this prep and placed last start at Clare, dangerous. NORMANDY LAD 2 wins from three attempts this campaign and two of four wins have come from dry ground, in with a chance. READY FOR ACTION short back-up of six days and came on to finish midfield last start at Mount Gambier on a soft track, place chance. First Reward (4) 5.

Planet Voyage (5) 1.You have activated your account, please feel free to browse our exclusive contests, videos and content. By checking this box, I agree to the terms of service and privacy policy of Rogers Media.

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Sportsnet 960 - Weekly Newsletter Weekly Updates for live shows and play by play of games, and ongoing contests Sportsnet 960 - Promotions Send me promotions, surveys and info from Sportsnet 960 and other Rogers brands. Sportsnet 960 - It's Your Birthday.The organization of this trip was overall excellent with great attention to detail and absolute customer mindset, e.

We were extremely grateful that everything worked very smoothly, without us getting stressed out with organizing, finding things, fixing things, etc. High professionalism and very kind manner talking to us, regardless who picked up the phone and fixed our two requests during the trip. Special thanks to Fjola for all, she did a great job. Each region we visited was different and each had its own charm and beauty.

When we returned to Canada we recommended Iceland as a place to visit, and to contact Nordic Visitor because they offer outstanding service.

The information package was well put together. We really appreciated the map which highlighted the trip route, points of interest and daily accommodations. Communication with him was very nice from very beginning till final e-mails before our arrival to Iceland.

We would be very happy to have opportunity to use Nordic Visitors again in case of our travel to Scandinavia. The driving tour was perfect for us. We had the security of your expertise and guidance, but we had all the freedom we wanted since we were driving ourselves. We were a bit apprehensive about driving in Iceland, but it turned out to be very easy and enjoyable.

The scenery was awesome and the driving distances were very manageable. I'm glad we added extra time in Reykjavik. I would have enjoyed even more time there. All of your materials were well prepared and fun to read.

The Iceland Road Guide is spectacular. I am still reading it. Together with Alexandra at Nordic Visitor, we planned a 10-day trip around Iceland. From the very first contact, Alexandra was extremely helpful and creative in responding to our wishes. The entire (interactive) planning process ran very smoothly. All the information sent to us (by regular mail and email) before the start of the trip was very informative. From the moment we landed in Iceland, everything was again very well organized.

monopole antenna advantages and disadvantages

The Road Atlas that the company provides is a great asset. Hotels and guesthouses were of high quality and everywhere we went, the food was great. The pre-booked excursions were very well-organized too. In general, we noticed that Nordic Visitor has an excellent network of hotels and guesthouses, and of companies for local excursions (glacier hike, whale watching, where, by the way, we got a great show by one whale).

monopole antenna advantages and disadvantages

Thank you Alexandra and thank you Nordic Visitor. You are a great company to work with. Too bad Nordic Visitor has no control over the Icelandic weather.

Electrical length

My husband and I traveled through Nordic Visitor for a full circle Iceland Activity Tour.The MPG was around 24 with lots of city driving, I'm not a lead foot or a grandpa driver.

So would I consider this for purchase. No, the deal breaker is the amount of noise that makes into the car. I'd like to add that on the previous day I had a 2017 Ford Fusion hybrid and that thing was luxury quiet, on any road surface. I use to have a 2015 Hyundai Santa Fe Sport and that thing was quieter and more fun to drive than the RAV4. So there is my take, good luck with your decision.

The drivability of the car is great due to it's 6 speed transmission. If driven gently mpg are in the 30s. One odd thing we found is the rear seat warning lights were on some days and off on others upon start up. It turns out the lights are triggered by the opening of the back doors so if the doors are opened between having been driven the warning lights come on upon start-up.

If the doors had not been opened the lights do not come on. I had to call Toyota, the dealer had no idea how they worked. Report Abuse Read All Reviews consumers review the RAV4 Read what real owners think about the 2017 Toyota RAV4 4. By facing negative reviews head-on and graciously resolving outstanding issues, you lead with customer service.

You show a growing community of people just how you run your business. Ready to turn customers into advocates. Download this handy guide to building a loyal customer base.

After all, no one is perfect. Business owners manage a ton of responsibilities every day. The more they can reasonably delegate to competent team members, the better. Vivian Howard and Ben Knight are restaurateurs in the small town of Kinston, North Carolina. Despite their incredible success, Ben still answers online reviews himself. Imagine if you got this response from your favorite PBS star.

Related: How to Talk to Your Angriest CustomersYelp is the king of review sites. If you run a niche business, also look out for review sites that are specific to the industry these offbeat sites may even hold more weight with influencers.

Consistency across platforms is key. They lack meaning, which is frustrating to everyone, especially the customer taking the time to write a review. As a general rule, the more effort a customer puts into a review, the more personalized and specific your response should be. You would rather breeze over the problem. Clear communication is hard to achieve, especially through a computer screen. Their robotic responses are a perfect example of bad customer service and red flags to any discerning reader.

Have you ever met a person who is truly gracious. Someone who is courteous, kind and respectful. When apologizing for an issue, a gracious tone is everything. In short, being gracious disarms people even irate complainers. Yes, this example would have been more impactful if Madison shared immediately rather than nine months later.We also like Icelandic beer (visit the Micro Bar in Reykjavik) and food (Tapas Barinn also in Reykjavik) and can therefore say with some certainty that we will be returning one day.

Booked a trip to Iceland with Larus at Nordic Visitor. I originally felt blind doing this as I did not know much about the hotels and sites but I soon did not feel alone. Larus responded quickly to my every question and inquiry, plus the information Nordic Visitor normally provides made me a knowledgeable traveler.

We thoroughly enjoyed our trip and our vacation was a huge success. We wanted an Overview of Iceland in 11 days, "The Highlights" you might say. Using NV was the best thing we could have done, from being picked up at the Airport, transfers, Itinerary, to the Car Hire (Inc Mobile phone and GPS), and some of the most unusual and brilliant places to stay. Our Rep Erla Sonja was fantastic.

We met her when dropping the phone off at the end of the trip. Would I recommend using them, A big YES. In fact we hope to go back in 2014, even with some Knowledge of the country now, NV are on speed dial before we do anything.

monopole antenna advantages and disadvantages

One note of caution, you may already know, you think you are prepared, the cost of food, allow plenty in your budget. I just want to say thank you for the detailed care and attention you gave to us before and during our trip. The hardest decision we had to make in Iceland was what souvenirs to buy. Communication from Nordic Visitor was fantastic.

The trip was fantastic. Jelena was great in fully preparing us for our travels -- especially on such short notice. The taxi driver from the airport was friendly. And of course our tour guide on Day 2 to visit the glaciers, volcano, and waterfalls was excellent. Incredibly knowledgeable, friendly, and entertaining. All we needed to do was show up and enjoy the ride. From the prompt and efficient email advice from Larus when first asking about self drive tours around Iceland and personal preferences, etc - to the amazingly detailed personalised schedule and marked out map we received before setting off, we have been so impressed with Nordic Visitor.